Underlying Inflation Gauge: Full Set Down 0.3%, Prices Only Down 0.2% in April
This article was originally written by Jill Mislinski. Starting in January 2023, AP Charts pages will be maintained by Jennifer Nash at Advisor Perspectives/VettaFi.
Here is the latest from the NY Fed:
- The UIG "full data set" measure for April is currently estimated at 4.0%, a 0.3 percentage point decrease from the current estimate of the previous month.
- The "prices-only" measure for April is currently estimated at 3.4%, a 0.2 percentage point decrease from the current estimate of the previous month.
- The twelve-month change in the April CPI was +4.9%, a 0.1 percentage point decrease from the previous month.
- For April 2023, trend CPI inflation is estimated to be in the 3.4% to 4.0% range, a lower and slightly narrower range than March, with a 0.2 percentage point decrease on its lower bound and a 0.3 percentage point decrease on its upper bound.
Economists at the NY Federal Reserve Bank introduced a new measure of trend inflation in September 2017, the Underlying Inflation Gauge (UIG), meant to complement the current standard measures. Investors and policymakers alike have an interest in the behavior of inflation over longer time periods.
The trend component of inflation is not an observed measure and a proxy measure is required to calculate it. To calculate trend inflation, transitory changes in inflation must be removed such as volatile components or specific items. Core CPI, which is the most widely used and accepted form of estimating trend inflation, only focuses on price components. The UIG derives trend inflation from a large set of data that extends beyond price variables. Additionally, it has shown higher forecast accuracy than traditional core inflation measures.
Here’s what the NY Fed says about the UIG:
“…the design of the UIG is based on the premise that movements in trend inflation are accompanied by related changes in the trend behavior of other economic and financial series. Consequently, we examine a large data set to identify the common component of other economic and financial series and then focus on the persistent part of the common component.”